Wednesday, 31 October 2012

Morleys Hall 1834


John Lunn states that the elopement of Edward Tyldesley and Anne Leyland took place between 1558 and 1560 and gives a ballad which he suggests was "often recited on festive days and nights in the galleries of the famous halls of the neighbourhood" [FN1].

In fact the ballad is a much later work by C. Peter. It was published in 1834 in—rather oddly for a Lancashire tale—The White Rose of York [FN2]. Lunn gives a version in which the names of the eloping couple have been corrected to Ned and Anne, whereas C. Peter called them Ralph and Alice:
Morley Hall
By C. Peter. 
A TRADITION in the parish of Leigh recounts that a daughter of Leyland having formed an attachment to one of the Tildesleys, in opposition to the wishes of her father, she was shut up in her room; but having provided herself with a rope, she tied one end of it round her body, and threw the other to her expecting lover, on the opposite side of the moat, (30 feet wide and 6 feet deep) and casting herself out of the window into the water, she was dragged to the land, and they were married before the adventure became known to the family. 
ALL are at rest in Morley Tow'r,
Save only Leyland's daughter,
Who gazes, from her summer bow'r,
O'er the surrounding water,
Watching a form she sees to glide
Along its silvery peaceful tide.

Her heart beats high,—it is her lover!
Ralph Tildesley of the Mersey side,
And if no waking eye discover,
Soon will their marriage knot be tied,
Though lock'd within her bow'r the maid,
And he upon the distant glade. 
The casement's high, the water broad,
No bark is there to waft him o'er,
And all too deep the stream to ford,
He still must keep the distant shore,—
Yet locks, high casement, nor broad water,
Can daunt the soul of Leyland's daughter. 
For lo! the maiden from her hand,
Hath flung to her expecting lover,
A lengthen'd twine of silken band
Which floats, the rippling water over,
And he hath seiz'd it, and hath bound
It firmly his strong hand around.
And she too, firmly round her waist,
The end retain'd by her, hath tied,
And from the lofty chamber cast
Herself into the glassy tide,—
She sinks beneath the murm'ring wave,
Nor deems that it might prove her grave. 
But no, the lovely form is borne,
Quick through the opening tide;
Ralph to the shore his love hath drawn,
And she stands by his side.
" To horse, to horse," fair Alice said,
And on his bosom droop'd her head.
From neighb'ring tree his courser's rein
He quickly loosens, and the maid
And Tildesley dash along the plain,
Fast as the good steed's hoofs can tread;
To wood, to brake, to vale, to dell,
The maiden smiles a sweet farewell.
The noble steed hath borne them well,
And safely o'er the Mersey's flood,
O'er crag, morass, thro' vale and fell,
And brought them into Wardley's wood ;
And soon beneath the arched way,
They enter Tildesley's mansion grey. 
The maid dismounts,—Ralph's sister there
Attends her in her lover's home;
"Vain now pursuit," he cried, "for ne'er
Beneath this roof may Leyland come
Till churchman's blessing one hath made,
Ralph Tildesley and this beauteous maid." 
An hour is gone,—she stands array'd
In bridal robes before the priest;
The holy rites are done and said,
Their hands in token have been prest,
The ring, the pledge of faith, is given,
The last amen ascends to heav'n. 
When hark! the sound of horn is heard,
And steeds come rushing up the plain,
Tis Leyland's self, (now little fear'd)
Who brings with him a gallant train;
The foam upon his charger's sides,
Bespeaks with how much haste he rides. 
The bride hath to her chamber gone,
The bridegroom to the outer gates,
(Which welcome and wide ope are thrown)
And there for Leyland, Tildesley waits.
" Give back my child," the old man cries,
With threatening hand, and tear-fraught eyes. 
"Dismount and enter," said the youth,
"Your daughter stays within the hall,
Unharm'd,—and here I pledge my truth,
No danger shall her sire befall;
So enter with your train, for they
I'll hail as welcome guests to-day."
He entered, and the bridal feast
Observ'd prepar'd, and Alice lies;
He caught his daughter to his breast,
She gently sank upon her knees,
"Your blessing, father dear," she cried,
"For I am Ralph de Tildesley's bride." 
The old man look'd bewilder'd round,
He saw the priest and bridal train;
He rais'd fair Alice from the ground,
He press'd her to his heart again :—
"Ralph is as bold and brave" said he,
"As I would have your husband be -
"Wherefore"—he cast his sword aside,
And seized the maiden's trembling hand—
"I bless thee, Alice, Tildesley's bride,
And he shall have my halls and land:"
Then in his hand he Tildesley's grasp'd,
And firm in lasting friendship clasp'd.

Loud were his followers' shouts and cries,—
They'd ridden to a marriage feast;
And brightly Wardley's damsels' eyes
Shone on each unexpected guest:
And long remember'd was the day
When Tildesley bore his bride away.
In 1846 the elopement was to be the subject of an unfinished poem, also entitled Morley Hall, by Branwell Brontë.

1. The History of the Tyldesleys of Lancashire, John Lunn, 1966
2. The White Rose of York, George Hogarth (Editor), 1834

Tuesday, 30 October 2012

Henriette Marie Stanley 1630-1685


Henriette Marie Stanley 1630-1685 was one of the daughters of James Stanley the seventh Earl of Derby. In August 1651, she was with her father in the Isle of Man where he was planning his ill-fated expedition to England. On 11 August 1651 she wrote to Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651 [FN1]:
Sir, — Not a minute since, as I was passing the bridge, I met with your letter, and do not a little admire your goodness, when I consider so great an indisposition was not capable to divert you from so troublesome an employment. Nothing can please me better than to hear from you my lord's gallant resolutions: they are so well seconded by you and the rest of the noble persons with him, that I do not doubt of a happy success in all your enterprizes, though the wind is so unmercifully cruel. I am just now told it begins to be fair, which makes me believe this will not reach you, and that I have in some part acquitted myself of what I owe you, without exposing to your view the absurdities of,

Sir, your affectionate Servant,
Henriette Marie Stanley,
Aug. 11, 1651.
My lady commands me to assure you of her service. Mine, I beseech you, Sir, to Colonel Roscarroek and Mr Tilsley Sandes [FN2]. Let the first know that I am sorry that any of my concernments should give him the least trouble; wherefore I desire him to forget the book, and only remember how much I am his servant.
Sadly there was to be no "happy success". Just two weeks later, on 25 August 1651, Sir Thomas Tyldesley fell at the Battle of Wigan Lane. The Earl of Derby was taken prisoner in September 1651, and—despite having been granted quarter by Captain Oliver Edge—was beheaded at Bolton on 15 October 1651.

In 1654 Henriette Stanley married William Wentworth, the second Earl of Stafford. Oddly, Wentworth's father had also been beheaded—in 1641. Henriette Wentworth died in 1685 and a memorial to her survives in Wentworth Old Church.

1. Private Devotions and Miscellanies of James Seventh Earl of Derby, The Revd. F R Raines, Chetham Society FS Vol 66, 1867.
2. The identity of "Mr Tilsley Sandes" has not yet been established.

Monday, 29 October 2012

Marston Moor 2 July 1644

On 2 July 1644 the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert and the Marquess of Newcastle engaged a much larger combined force under Lord Fairfax, the Earl of Manchester and the Earl of Leven on ground about 6 miles to the west of York. In what is probably the largest battle to have taken place on English soil, the Royalists were outnumbered 28,000 to 18,000. Amongst the Royalist forces were foot and cavalry regiments raised by Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651.

A report of what is now known as the Battle of Marston Moor was written for Parliament by Scoutmaster-General Lionel Watson [FN1] and notes the capture of Sir Thomas Tyldesley:
Our three Brigades of Foot of the Earle of Manchesters being on our right hand. On we went with great resolution, charging them so home, one while their Horse, and then again their Foot, and our Foot and Horse seconding each other with such valour, made them flie before us, that it was hard to say which did the better our Horse or Foot. Major Generall Lesley seeing us thus pluck a victory out of the enemies hands, professed Europe had no better Souldiers. 
To conclude about nine of the clock we had cleared the Field of of all enemies, recovered out Ordnance and Carriages, tooke all the enemies Ordnance and Ammunition, and followed the chase of them within a mile of Yorke, cutting them downe so that their dead bodies lay three miles in length. Divers prisoners of note were taken, Lord Gorings son, Colonel Tilsley, Sir Charles Lucas, Major Generall Porter, and about an hundred more Officers, 1500 Souldiers. The number of the dead is uncertaine; but I cannot think, but of all dead in the field, in the woods, and mortally wounded (which would die within a day) there are between three and foure thousand Their whole Army is so broken, that of Foot I am confident they are not able of 13000. to rally 2000. and of eight or nine thousand Horse, not above two thousand, the rest all gone to their own homes, except those that are slain and prisoners. The glory of this, as it onely due to God, as the prime efficient, so must it be acknowledged (as it is by all, and that most justly) thit instrumentally it was done by none but by the Earle of Manchesters Horse and Foot led on by Cromwel, and those Scots which charged in with them, commanded by Major Generall Lesley, who carried himselfe very bravely. Lieutenant Generall Cromwell (the great agent in this victory) hath received a slight wound in the neck. We lost not in all this fight, above two or three hundred men. Sir Thomas Fairfax (wounded in the head or face) caried himself as bravely as as man could doe, was unhorst, lay upon the ground, and was relieved by our horse. The enemy hath lost all their Arms, the field being full of Pikes and Muskets; This morning we gathered them up within 2 miles of Yorke, not an enemy daring to look upon us. Rupert is on the North side or Yorke with about two thousand Horse. I am 
Your humble Servant 
Lion Watson

1. A more exact relation of the late battell neer York; fought by the English and Scotch forces, against Prince Rupert and the Marquess of Newcastle. Wherein the passages thereof are more particularly set down, presented to the view of those who desire better satisfaction therin. Published for the more inlargement of our hearts to Almighty God on our day of Thanksgiving, commanded by authority for the great victory obtained. Allowed to be printed according to order., Lionel Watson, 1644.
Date: 1644

Sunday, 28 October 2012

British Library ruins historic diary...


From the Evening Standard of 15 May 2007:
British Library ruins historic diary
THE British Library has apologised after a historic diary was badly damaged while in its care. The diary, written by Thomas Tyldesley, recounts the Jacobite rebellion in Scotland in 1715 and was lent by one of his descendants. Solicitor Peter Tyldesley said he "wanted to weep" after finding that oil had been spilt over some pages, making many illegible, and the original leather cover had been cut off.

Saturday, 27 October 2012

Frances Tyldesley 1669


Frances Tyldesley was the daughter of Edward Tyldesley 1635-1685 and his first wife Anne Fleetwood. She died young in 1669 and was buried at Leyland Parish Church. As noted by Walter White in 1890 [FN1], it is likely that at the time she was living with her grandmother, Lady Frances Tyldesley—widow of Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651:
Burialls, 1669.
Mris ffrancis,[1] daughter of Mr Edward Tilsley May 19 
1. Mris ffrances Tyldesley was probably only a child or a very young person at the date of her death. To account for her burial at Leyland we may suppose that she was living with her grandmother, Lady Frances Tyldesley, who at this time resided at Leyland Hall. Lady Tyldesley was the daughter of Ralph Standish, of Standish, Esquire, and the widow of the gallant major-general who fell at Wigan Lane in 1651. We learn from the evidence given by her before the Commissioners appointed to interrogate witnesses for the Exchequer Court in the case (Attorney-General v. Gaynor Jones and William Crosse) that Lady Tyldesley farmed the estate called Leyland Hall for seven years after the death of Robert Charnock's mother in 1659, and that she continued to reside there, for the most part, until the death of Mr. Charnock himself in 1670. She also stated that her eldest son, Edward Tyldesley, Esq. (mentioned in the text), who was deceased in 1687, the date of the depositions, had assisted Robert Charnock in various ways, and in particular by the gift and allowance of the tythes of Fulwood (amounting to some £25 per annum). We may conjecture that this gift would be employed by Mr. Charnock in the propaganda which he was actively carrying on in the neighbouring districts in his capacity as Vicar Apostolic. See the note on p. 210.

1. The Register Book of Christenings, Weddings and Burials within the Parish of Leyland, Walter White, 1890.

Friday, 26 October 2012

So much barbarity...Lichfield 1646


In January 1646, Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651 was appointed Governor of Lichfield. The city was taken by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Brereton in March 1646, leaving the Royalists confined to the cathedral close. In the siege that followed Brereton targeted the main spire of the cathedral, which after 5 days of bombardment collapsed on 12 May 1646, damaging the choir and nave. 

Brereton employed other tactics. On 27 May 1646 he turned certain women and children out of their homes in the city and drove them into the cathedral close. There they would be a drain on the Royalists' dwindling supplies. In addition, there was a suspicion that some were suffering from the plague. On 28 May 1646 Sir Thomas Tyldesley wrote a letter of protest to Brereton:
Sir THOMAS TILDSLEYES and Colonell Baggots to Sir William Brereton, touching the Woemen that were sent to their Husbands in the Close. 
SIR, 
YOur last nights night worke which might well be ashamed of the light is an act of so much barbarity so remote from Nature, Lawes, Christianity, and so dangerous to your Soules, that we cannot suffer you to sleepe in it another, and pray you may not harden your hearts to Counterfeit it for our parts we are secure that neither the blood of those Innocents if shed can be said to· our Charge nor dare we faile to let you understand to whom it must be imputed. 
You have turned out of their Habitations sundry poore Woemen and their Innocent Children whom you should have rather relieved) upon us that are now freed from all Obligations to relieve the Harbourlesse, or feed the Hungry, It is not unsuspected also that Gods visiting hand is upon some of them, which if being true their houses are fittest for them as is by Law appointed and we have no better warrant to entertaine them then to be desperate, and tempt God. Our Resolution is neither to receive these nor any others, you are unchristianly resolved to expose to death, we are all absolved from the dutie and the sinne that may grow by the neglect of it, and advise you to think upon it seriously with a beleif of a time when God will make Inquisition for blood. And soe we recommend them to your reception or other disposall upon more Christian thoughts. And we further wish you to take of the vicessitude of subblnary affaires, and that your party may be capable for though we will not menace to be your imitators in so bad an example, yet we will not for our better discharge omit to tell you, that there has bin knowne many an Adombethed in the world, and the just God hath his wonderfull just retaliations· And soe having done our duty both to the miserable exposed and your Soules, we pray God to keepe you from so mercilesse unreasonable and wilfull a wretchednesse as you are acting upon those innocent Woemen (who upon our engagments as we are Gentlemen and Souldiers) have not done any thing this siedge prejuditiall to your Cause by intelligence, or otherwise that we know of. If this may not satisfie you we shall send two or three Gentlemen to meet the like number of yours to discusse the businesse by word of worth, least this extreamity should be· occasioned by some mistake, in the meane time remaining 
Your servants.
Tho. Tildsley.
Her. Baggot.
 
Litchfield Close May 28. 1646.

Thursday, 25 October 2012

British Library sacks curator for keeping historic book in car boot


From The Times of 29 December 2007:
British Library sacks curator for keeping historic book in car boot
Thomas Tyldesley's diary, safe for almost 300 years, is now stained and damaged
"There seem to have been a complete absence of controls"—Peter J. Tyldesley
Dalya Alberge Arts Correspondent 
The British Library has sacked a member of staff after an historic diary written by a prominent Jacobite as he plotted the 1715 rebellion became badly damaged after being left in the library's care.
The dismissal came after an internal investigation into allegations that the member of staff not only removed the 96-page manuscript from the library's building in St Pancras, North London, but also kept it in the boot of his car, The Times has learnt.
However, the owner of the diary has criticised the library for not making public its report or naming the member of staff who has been sacked.
The manuscript had been passed to the library for safekeeping by its private owner, a descendant of Thomas Tyldesley, the diary's author.
Peter J. Tyldesley, a solicitor and consultant for the Law Commission, spoke of his shock yesterday at finding that the diary had been badly stained with an oily substance and subjected to damp and mould damage. Its original leather front cover had also been removed.
He said: "A member of the library's staff was able, without any authority, to remove this early 18th-century manuscript not just from safe storage but from the British Library premises altogether.
"There certainly seems to have been a complete absence of effective management controls. Obviously the wider concern must be whether this was a one-off incident."
It was in the manuscript that Thomas Tyldesley (1657-1715) wrote daily diary entries for almost three years from March 25, 1712. He described everyday life and political events, as well as the plotting and the intrigue with which his family was involved in their pursuit of the Jacobite cause. As the rebellion of 1715 approached, he wrote of having his gun and sword repaired and receiving visitors of note, including an envoy who arrived "in disgyes".
Mr Tyldesley had deposited it at the British Library in 1994 because he assumed that it would be safer there than in his own home. He had been assured that it would be kept in a protective box, but discovered its sorry state seven months ago.
He told The Times then how he had "wanted to weep" when he collected it and found that so many of its pages had been stained and made completely illegible.
The library confirmed yesterday that a member of staff had left his job, but quoted the Data Protection Act 1998 in refusing to give access to the report's findings. Mr Tyldesley said: "I understand that the library has prepared a lengthy report and my suspicion is that the contents are potentially very embarrassing."
Ronald Milne, the library's director of scholarship and collections, said: "A senior conservator has prepared a detailed report and further work is being done with external specialists to identify the nature of the liquid which caused the staining:"

Wednesday, 24 October 2012

How British Library allowed 300-year-old diary to be ruined


From The Times of 14 May 2007:
How British Library allowed 300-year-old diary to be ruined
Peter Tyldesley owns diary
Dalya Alberge
Arts Correspondent 
A historic diary written by a prominent Jacobite as he plotted the 1715 rebellion has been severely damaged while in the care of the British Library, The Times has learnt.
Its private owner, a descendant of Thomas Tyldesley, the diary's author, has described how he "wanted to weep" when he collected the 96-page manuscript last week and discovered that someone had spilt oil across its pages — staining them and making some of them completely illegible. Its original leather front cover had also been cut off.
Peter J. Tyldesley, a solicitor and consultant for the Law Commission, said that a vital part of national history had been lost. In its original condition, the document would be likely to raise a high five-figure sum at auction. "There are sections which are completely destroyed, sections where the entire text block has disappeared into a smeary mess," Mr Tyldesley said.
"In some ways, it's so bad it's difficult to imagine it was ever a diary. It's been a truly shocking experience."
Within the manuscript, Thomas Tyldesley (1657-1715) wrote daily diary entries for almost three years from March 25, 1712. He detailed everyday life and political events, as well as the plotting and the intrigue with which his family was involved in their pursuit of the Jacobite cause. As the rebellion of 1715 approached, he described how he had his gun and sword repaired and began to receive visitors of note — including one envoy who is recorded as arriving "in disgyes".
The diary measures about 5/2 inches wide and 14'A inches tall (14cm x 37cm). Ironically, Mr Tyldesley transferred it to the library in 1994 because he was nervous of looking after it. He told The Times: "I thought the British Library was the safest place for it. How wrong I was."
The British Library told The Times that the diary had "suffered accidental damage", but insisted that it was an "isolated incident". Helen Shenton, the library's head of collection care, said: "The book had been kept in safe storage in a protective box and it was not until the book was opened that the stains were discovered."
She added: "We apologise for any distress caused to Peter Tyldesley." 
Family fortunes
  • The diary, above, was kept by Thomas Tyldesley (1657-1715), who came from an old Lancashire family renowned for its loyalty to the Catholic cause
  • His father, Edward, was 6 when he saw a priest seized from his family's home and taken to Lancaster to be hanged, drawn and quartered
  • With the Restoration, Edward formed part of the embassy that brought Catherine of Braganza to London for her marriage to Charles II
  • This resurgence in the family's fortunes was shortlived and ended with the departure of the last Catholic king, James II, to France in 1688
  • Thomas Tyldesley, the diarist, had a secret chamber constructed in the family home — for James II, if he were to return
Source: Times database

Tuesday, 23 October 2012

The gravestone of James Tyldesley 1702-1800


The gravestone of James Tyldesley 1702-1800—this being a recent replica to replace that which had been damaged beyond repair.
James Tildfley, departed this life
Octr 24th,1800 in the 99th year of his age.
For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Chrift
In God.  when Chrift who is our life Shall appear,
Then Shall ye alfo appear with him in Glory. 
Alfo Thomas, Son of James & Ellen
Tildfley, of the Townfhip of Shackerley
who died Febry 4th, 1795 aged 50 Years.
Also Ralph Tildesley, who departed
this life July 16th 1870, Aged 75 Yrs. 
Also, Ann Wife of Ralph Tildsley,
of Tyldesley, who died Janry. 5th.
1849, aged 48 Years.  Also
James Tildesley who departed this
life March 23rd 1862, Aged 31 Years.
Also Mary Barritt who died
December 12th 1879, Aged 86 Years. 
J.T.
The verse is Colossians 3 (3,4):
For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Chrift
In God.  when Chrift who is our life Shall appear,
Then Shall ye alfo appear with him in Glory. 
Coincidentally the same verse was the basis of a sermon given almost 200 years earlier—the publication of which was dedicated to Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1557-1635:
For yee are dead, and your life is hidde with Chrift in good.  
When Chrift which is our life fhall appeare,
Then fhall yee alfo appeare with him in glorie. 

Monday, 22 October 2012

For the King, for the King—20 June 1642


The English Civil War formally commenced when Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham on 22 August 1642. 

However, as has already been noted, Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651 may have been responsible for the first death of the conflict a month earlier on 15 July 1642. And on 20 June 1642, Sir Thomas was present at a Commission of Array on Preston Moor where he urged those attending to declare for the King. A report of the gathering was sent to Parliament by Alex Rigby [FN1] (a Parliamentarian who should not be confused with the Alexander Rigby who erected the Tyldesley Monument). Of those on Preston Moor he described Sir Thomas as amongst "the most busie and active":
Honourable Sir;

MAster Shutleworth and my selfe, being in obedience to the commands of both Houses in our way to Lancashire, and hearing as we found it true, that by colour of a Letter from the King to Sir John Girlington the high Sheriffe of that County, publik Summons was given through all or most part of the County, that all the Protestant Subjects therein, should the next day appeare at Preston, to heare read the last Lancashire Petition to the King, and his Answer thereunto, and his Majesties 2. last Declarations to that of both Houses of the 19. and that of the 26. of May, we by the way discharged some, with whom causually met of their appearance, & willed them to do the like to their neighbours, and from the Constable of Standish, wee tooke a warrant directed to him alone, for the summoning of all within that Township, which warrnat had that very day being Sunday, beene published in Standish Church, by Master Chaddock the Parson thereof; and we did that night repaire to Preston, whither the next morning being the 20. of this instant Iune, the high Sheriffe accompanied with the Lord Strange his eldest son a child, the Lord Mollineux, son in law to the Lord Strange, and divers other Gentlemen resorted, and thither also then came about five thousand persons upon the said Summons, whom the Sheriffe did then draw out to a great Moore adjoyning, called Preston Moore, but before the Sheriffe went forth, we, who by the shortnesse of time could conven no other of the Committee, or of the rest of the Deputy-Lieutenants, acquainted the Sheriffe, that we with others, as a Committee of both Houses, wereby them sent downe for the preservation of the peace of the County, and shewed him such parts of our instructions as enjoyned his obedience thereunto, and conduced to the present occasion, and we demanding, he acknowledged that he, upon the said Letter, had caused the people to be summoned and convened to the purpose aforesaid, and shewed us the Letter, but not the Declarations, we told him we feared the publishing of the Declarations might tend to the raising of a faction or party against the Parliament, and we therefore admonished and advised him to forbeare the doing, publishing, or dispersing any thing of that nature, & we further demanding, he told us that he had a Commission of Array, directed to the Lord Strange, to himselfe, to Sir George Midleton, now lately made Baronet at Yorke, Sir Alexander Radcliffe, Master Tildesley of Mierscough, Master William Farington, and others, and that when the people were drawne together, he would acquaint them with that Commission, and that he would also proclaim the Kings Proclamation, of 27. of May, which as hee affirmed, he had already caused to be proclaimed in many places, we thereupon wished him to forbeare it, and afterwards according to our instructions, we tendred unto him, and required him in the name of the Lords and Commons, to read and publish to the people, severall Bookes conteining the Declaration of the Lords and Commons, concerning the said Proclamation, and the supposed Statute, d. 7. Edw. 1. as also the Votes of both Houses, made the 20. of May last, with sundry Articles or Acts of Parliament, to confirme the same; but he refused to publish them or to receive them from our hands, and when the people were assembled, he and his under Sheriffe, Master Thomas Danfon; and Robert Male, a Popish Recusant, and others, did then read unto them the said Letter, Lancashire Petition and answer, the two last Declarations of the King, and the Sheriffe himselfe shewed unto them the Commission of Array, under the great Seal of England, but before these passages were ended, the assembly went away, except as we beleve about 6, or 700, persons, in whose presence we call'd to the Sheriffe, and told him that we were to speake unto him, in the name of the Lord· & Commons assembled in Parliament, and were to acquaint him with our instructions, concerning his Commission of Array, and his intermedling with the Militia of the County, but he refused to stay to heare them, and then according to our instructions, we did in the name of the Lords and Commons of England, require and command him to deliver unto us that Co~mssiion of Array, to be by us sent to the Parliament, or to give us his answer, and thereupon hee denyed to deliver that Commission, & Master Tidlesley of Mierscough told us we should receive an answer from Yorke, we also in the name of the Lords and Commons commanded the Sheriffe and all his fellow Commissioners in that Commission of Array, to forbeare the execution thereof, and all the people to forbeare to obey the same, at which the Sheriffe departed, and he and divers about him cryed out, all that are for the King goe with us, crying For the King, for the King, and so about 400. persons, whereof very many, and as we beleeve the greater part were Popish Recusants went with him, and rid up and down the Moor, and cryed, For the King, For the King, but the rest then staying with us, we proceeded and declared unto them, that we and others were sent downe by the Lords and Commons in Parliament, for the preservation of the peace of this County, and that both Houses and our selves in particular, ever had done and ever would doe, all things tending to the safety honour, and peace of the Kings person, & his Kingdomes, and nothing to the contrary, and wished them not to divide betweene the King and Parliament, but to stand for the King and Parliament, whereupon with a generall acclamation, they prayed for the King and the Parliament, we then wished all high Constables, and petty Constables, and others then present, to be attentive, and we read unto them such parts of the instructions as were applicable to the present passages, and the Militia of the County, concerning which we told them, that all the Deputy Lieutenants appoynted by the Parliament, were forthwith to meet, and therefore we but being two, would give no further direction therein till that time, and then they should receive further advertisements how to behave themselvs, and in the mean time we advised them not to suffer themselves to be drawne into Armes without direction from the Parliament, and so we dismissed the assembly, Sir George Midleton, and Master Thomas Tildesley of Meriscough, and Master Thomas Prestwiche, whose wives are Popish Recusants, and Master William Farington a Justice of peace, were in our judgements, the most busie and active, and they assisted, countenanced, & abetted the Sheriffe in all the aforesaid passages, and therein pressed and urged him forward, who of himselfe was thereunto sufficiently enclined, and whilst these things were in acting upon the Moore, Will. Sumpner, servant to Master William Farington, who during his late Deputy Lieutenancy, had placed in a private house in Preston, about 13. barrells of Gunpowder, and some quantity of Match, did secretly convey away about 6. barrells thereof, in Packcloathes upon Packhorses, and the next morning about 6. of the clocke and before, we had notice in whose house that Powder and Match was lodged the Sheriffe did convey away out of the Towne and Liberties of Preston, the residue of the said Powder and Match, which being made knowne to me, I forthwith repayred to the Sheriffe, and shewed him the Order of the Lords and Commons, made the 10. of May last, for the disposing of the Magazines, and also a deputation from the Lord Wharton, authorizing his Deputy Lieutenants, or any two or more of them, to dispose of the Magazines of Lancashire, and then desired him to cause that powder to be returned to Preston, but he answered that he would not returne it, but would keepe it and defend it with the power of the County, and the Sheriffe and Sir George Midleton then said, that that Order should not be obeyed, and I thought it not meet for so small a quantity of Powder and Match, though indeed a very considerable quantity for the time and place, to endeavour a returne thereof by force, so that it now remaineth unknowne to me where they (who tooke it) have disposed it: in the last place I make bold to present my opinion, that the Malignant party could not by any passage at the assembly on Preston moore, distinguish that the affections of any considerable part thereof, inclined unto them, and I verily beleeve that we lost not, but gained by that dayes worke, for the safety and peace of the King and Kingdome, yet concerning the Sheriffe, I considering the man, and the command incident to his place, the great number of Papists, the great store of Horses for service, now amongst them, the many Popish Protestant Professors and other Malignant persons, you may peradventure feare, that thereby we shall receive discouragement, unlesse your timely and full assistance be extended to us, & the other here intrusted by you, but however I trust in God, with the issue & sequel, his Majeststy shall find the loyalty, and you the fidelity, and industry of

Your humble servant, Alex. Rigby. 

1. Severall letters from the committees in severall counties to the honourable William Lenthall Esquire, speaker of the House of Commons, read in both Houses of Parliament, Iune 27, 1642 : wherein, amongst divers other passages very remarkable, is related how the townsmen of Manchester put themselves into arms, and stood upon their defense against the Lord Strange and his forces, who came to seize on the magazine : with an intercepted letter from Sir Edward Fitton, to Sir Thomas Aston at York, discovering a fowl designe of the malignant party: whereunto is added severall votes of both Houses, Ralph Ashton, 1642.

Sunday, 21 October 2012

The Storming of Bolton 28 May 1644


One of the most controversial engagements of the Civil War was the storming of Bolton by Royalist forces under the command of Prince Rupert on 28 May 1644—an action in which both Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651 and the Earl of Derby were involved. The initial assault failed, but the town was taken in a second attack, with much bloodshed.

Subsequent propaganda from the Parliamentarians termed this significant loss of life "the Bolton Massacre".

Why was the storming of Bolton marked by such deep enmity? There appear to be at least two factors in play. First, many of the Parliamentarians in the Bolton garrison had previously been involved in the unsuccessful first siege of Lathom House—the seat of the Earl of Derby, which had been ably defended by Charlotte Stanley, Countess of Derby. Second, after the failed first assault on Bolton, the Parliamentarians had hanged—in full view of the Royalists—a captured Captain, in the apparently erroneous belief that he was "an Irish Papist". No doubt this would have particularly enraged the Catholics in the Royalist forces—including those serving under Sir Thomas Tyldesley.

Writing in 1645 [FN1], Sir George Wharton mentions the hanging:
May 25. Prince Rupert assaulted and took Stepford, a strong Garrison of the Rebels in Cheshire, together with all their canon, most of their Armes and Ammunition, and about 800 of them prisoners. Hereupon Latham house after at least 18 weeks siege, was timely releived by his highnesse Prince Ruperts approach into those parts.

May 28. His Highnesse Prince Rupert summoned Bolton, (the Geneva of Lancashire as the brethren call it) the first Towne in that County and consequently in England, that put in execution the militia, as the readiest means to ruine the Kingdome. But they out of a zealous confidence hanged one of the Princes Capt: which they had not long before taken prisoner, whereupon the Prince stormed the town, & in the 2 attempt took it, wherein were kild at least 800 rebels, 600 prisoners taken, with al their colours, Ordnance, Armes, and Ammunition. The justice of which act was foreseen by master Booker, who about this time had noted it in his Almanack thus, Authores dissentionum & sang uinus profusionum, absque dubio mercede sua mulctabuntur.
As noted in a later post, after Bolton Sir Thomas Tyldesley obtained leave from the King to proceed to Preston with 2,000 men.

1. Englands Iliads in a nut-shell. Or, A briefe chronologie of the battails, sieges, conflicts, and other most remarkable passages from the beginning of this rebellion, to the 25. of March, 1645, Sir George Wharton, 1645.

Saturday, 20 October 2012

A Cry of Blood 1654


John Musgrave was a quarrelsome Parliamentarian who wrote a series of pamphlets pursuing a range of grievances.

One such pamphlet, A cry of bloud of an innocent Abel against two bloudy Cains published in 1654 is of particular interest as it gives the name of one of the Troopers who had been under the command of Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651:
Thomas Burton, a notorious Delinquent, was a Trooper under Sir Thomas Tildesly, expressing his malignancy by drinking the Kings health; the gross misdemeanors in executing of his Office while he was Justice of Peace, the many quarrelsome and troublesome suits, his oppressions, and unwarrantable and illegal commitments, his daily frequenting ranting Cavaliers company, are all proved before the Commissioners for compounding, and much more, for which be was fined Fifty pounds, and disabled to be a Justice of Peace. And whereas it is said, that his father was plundered by Sir Philip Musgrave, it is known that his father was under Sir Philip Musgraves protection, and voluntary without compulsion lent large sums of money to Sir Philip to carry on the War; and if there was a more scandalous and malignant Priest in that Countrey, let me receive blame and shame.

1. A cry of bloud of an innocent Abel against two bloudy Cains: being a discovery of two cavalier and malignant brothers conspiracy ageinst another brother of the Parliament party. And a short relation of justices of the peace in Cumberland their illegal proceedings against the Parliaments friends. With a complaint of some corruptions and delays in law and Chancery proceedings, John Musgrave, 1654

Friday, 19 October 2012

A Chronicle of the late Intestine War 1676


In 1676 James Heath's A chronicle of the late intestine war in the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland [FN1] was published. It contains two mentions of Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651 in its discussion of the events of August 1651:
The King marched directly North-west to Lancashire, whither Harrison with some of Lamberts men had got before Him, intending to stop His further passage at Warrington;   to which service they had obliged and animated the new-raised Cheshire-Foot, amounting to neer 3000; but both they and Harrison received a notable defeat at that place by the conduct of Colonel Massey, who set them a forerunning with a greater speed than they had made hitherto to overtake the King; to whom in this County came the Earl of Derby, who landed at Wye-water from the Isle of Man,  though not with the same instantaneous (or indeed any) success, which his great Ancestor the noble Stanly brought to His Majesties Royal Progenitor King Henry the seventh, upon his like dispute, for the regaining of the Crown. With the Earl of Derby the King left some Forces of English under his Major-General Sir Thomas Tildesly, to strengthen what Forces he brought with him, and to countenance those Levies he was to make in that County, where he was very well beloved, both for his own and his Ancestors worth, and most liberal Hospitality. Massey was left here behind, but presently recalled.
Yet  there was a Noble Person, and some few of his partakers, whom froward unkinde Fate had banded from one ruine to a worse, and had added to that number of English at Worcester. This was the truly Honourable Earl of Derby, that was left behinde in Lancashire to raise that County, whose Le|vies with that Force left him did not amount to above 1200 men, though a little more time had rendred him formidable; with those he was marching upon a designe to fall upon Cromwel's own Regiment, quartering upon their march in Lancaster, when in the nick comes Colonel Lilburn with 10 Troops of Horse sent by the General from York upon this very Service, having with him two Regiments of the Cheshire-Foot, and other additions of Horse. The Earl was now in the midst of both these Parties, and therefore resolved to fight with Lilburn, finding his men couragious and desirous to engage, though most Horse, and in Lanes, and accordingly charged them so furiously, that he totally routed their first Troops, and made an impression into their Body so far that they began to run, while other fresh Reserves coming in, they were forced to face about, being annoyed with the Musquets; yet did they renew the charge again, and had they had but another Reserve, they had in all probability won the day; for it was upon a second Turn, when another supply resisted the torrent of their Valour, which left undeniable proofs of it self, in the death of most of the Commanders of their Wounds in and after the Battle; the names of which were the Lord Widdrington, Major-General Sir Thomas Tildesly, Colonel Mat. Boyton, Sir Francis Gamul [FN2], Lieutenant-Colonel Gallyard, and Major Trollop, and Chester; the Prisoners were Sir William Throckmorton, Colonel Richard Leg, Colonel Robinson, Bayns, Gerard, Lieutenant-Colonel Rigby, Constable, and Major Gower, and some 300 Prisoners, among whom were some Reformadoes, and some 80 slain, for the chief slaughter fell on the other side during the fight. The Earl of Derby having lost his George and Garter, fled with some 30 towards Worcester, having by the good providence of God, who alone is able to bring Evil out of Good, sheltered himself one night in a house called Boscobel, which Heaven by this means had prepared for the Kings retreat and preservation.

1. A chronicle of the late intestine war in the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland with the intervening affairs of treaties and other occurrences relating thereunto : as also the several usurpations, forreign wars, differences and interests depending upon it, to the happy restitution of our sacred soveraign, K. Charles II, James Heath, 1676
2. As noted in a previous footnote, Sir Francis Gamul did not die at the Battle of Wigan Lane.

Thursday, 18 October 2012

The Dampe of Death 1613


In 1613 a sermon given by William Leigh (Pastor at Standish Hall) to the prisoners condemned to death at Lancaster Assizes was published under the title The Dampe of Death: Beaten Backe with the Glorious Light and Life of Jesus Christ

The publication carried a lengthy dedication to Thomas Tyldesley 1557-1635:

TO THE RIGHT WORSHIPFVLL THOMAS Tildesley Esquire, his Maiesties Atturney generall, within the Countie Palantine of Lancaster, and Vice Chancellor, of his Highnes Court of Chancerie there: Grace be multiplied in this world, and blessednes in the world to come. 
Worshipfull Syr.

YOur loue hath ouerawed me much in this busines wherein it hath pleased God and you to put me, and for because your place, and praise, is in the Gospell, I durst not consult with flsh and blood, but haue as you may see, most willingly obeyed the heauenly call.

The Sermon being ended at Lancaster in Lent Assises last, where I was enioyned by authoritie to preach to the prisoners then condemned to die, it was your desire to have a copie in priuate of that which was then deliuered in publique, at what time I truely tolde you, my Notes were scattered and vndisgested, rather carried in my heart, then in my hand, yet (would God assisting me) in conuenient time binde them together ere they were too farre fallen out of my minde and memorie, which I haue here done accordingly, and sent them to your worship, as a constat of my vnfained loue, yet with this Caution, you neuer thinke what was then deliuered by voyce, can be carried so powerfully in papers, as it was in speech.

The words contained in the two tables which God gaue to Moses, from the holy Mount, were first spoken by the mouth of God, ere they were written by the finger of God, and then carried into the valley to be heard and kept of all the people. So may I likewise say of the Gospell, Voyces and Prophesies went of the blood of Christ, ere euer it dropt out of his veines. But if gratious words had not fallen from the mouth of Christ, Christians had neuer conceiued either the power or vertue of his death. For as there is a blood of redemption, so there is a word of reconsiliation, and surely where the word teacheth not, there the blood droppeth not: you are religiously wise to conceiue whereat I ayme. To wit, that reading, preaching, and practizing of pietie, may all goe together, like Saul and Ionathan, of whom it is said, that they were louely in their liues, and at their deaths were not diuided.

Learned you are in your owne lawes, and therefore knowe better then I can tell, that though the body of your lawes lie in your bookes, yet the soule thereof is in your mootes and pleadings, as also that the barre and bench doe more powerfully end, and profitably determine our causes, then the bookes in your chambers can doe: I speake in no desperagement, either of your bookes, or our Bibles, which in themselues are learned, sacred and holy, but to intimate to all the world, that if you pleade not, and we preach not, neither states can long stand, nor soules can be ordinarily saued. For though holy bookes be holy Oracles, and registers of Gods truth,   Yet must the Priests lippes preserue knowledge, and the people must seeke the lawe at his mouth, for he is the messenger of the Lord of Hosts.

Good Sir, take what I haue written, in lieu of my loue, may it pleasure you and benefit Soules, either liuing in this world, or dying to a better, it is all I wish in my heart, it is all I begge in my prayer, and what is in my power or Element to doe, it shall be alwaies yours, my penne is yours, my paines are yours, my selfe am yours, to be commaunded in him, who commandeth all, with my daily prayer to God, for you and yours, euer to be kept vnder his holy and helping hand of prouidence and protection.

And so I cease your further trouble, but neuer leaue to loue and honour you, as I am much bounden,
Standish this seuenteenth day of Aprill. 1613.

Your worships euer, and so assured in his loue,

William Leigh.
The sermon was based on Colossians 3 (3,4):
For yee are dead, and your life is hidde with Chrift in good.  
When Chrift which is our life fhall appeare,
Then fhall yee alfo appeare with him in glorie. 
Nearly 200 years later, this was also to be the verse on the gravestone of James Tyldesley 1702-1800:
For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Chrift
In God.  when Chrift who is our life Shall appear,
Then Shall ye alfo appear with him in Glory.

Wednesday, 17 October 2012

The Killing of Robert Dodsworth 1693


On Thursday 9 November 1693 Robert Dodsworth stumbled into an alehouse in Bloomsbury with two bleeding wounds—from which he died [FN1].

Why was Dodsworth killed?

A Catholic gentleman from Ravensworth, Dodsworth had nevertheless given information to Parliament regarding the supposed Lancashire plot. Attached to his evidence dated 16 May 1690 was a list of those he knew to have received commissions from James II—the notorious "Dodsworth's List" [FN2].

Eight of those allegedly involved in the plot were tried for High Treason in Manchester in October 1694. Without Dodsworth, the most credible witness, these prosecutions failed. The murder was apparently the work of two Jacobite brothers named Deane.

Dodsworth's List contained three members of the Tyldesley family—Colonel Thomas Tyldesley 1657-1715 and his two uncles, Captain Thomas Tyldesley and Captain Ralph Tyldesley. The Tyldesleys were not tried in 1694.

A LIST of those OFFICERS I know. 
Under Collonel Thomas Tildesley. 
LIEUTENANT Collonel Girlington a Protestant.
Capt. Thomas Tildesley.
Capt.  Ralph Tildesley.
Capt. Henry Butler.
Capt. Richard Butler.
Capt. Alexander Butler a Protestant.
Capt. Thomas Carus.
Lieut. William Westby.
Mr. Goodwin the Priest was to raise a Troop at his own Charge, and to put in Officers.
Lieut. George Carus of Sellet.
Lieut. Thomas Butler.
Cornet Knipe Protestant.
Cornet Coale Protestant.

Under Collonel Townley. 
Lieut. Coll. Standish.
Capt. Bierley or Barlow.
Cornet Woolfall.
Quarter-Master Ducket. 
Under Collonel Molyneux. 
Lieut. Coll. Gerrard, Son to Sir William Gerrard.
Capt. Westby.
Capt. Harrington.
Capt. Molyneux.
Capt. Massey.
Capt. Penny.
Capt. Carus Protestant.
Lieut. Stanley.
Lieut. Penalt or such like Name he lives in Wales and came into my Place.
Cornet Carus.
There is also one Coll. Tempest in York-shire. 
Under Coll. Dalton I know none. 
Several of these Officers I had it from their own Mouths, the others only by Hearsay.

R. Dodsworth.

1. A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs 1678-1714, Vol III, Narcissus Luttrell, 1862
2. A true history of the several designs and conspiracies against His Majesties sacred person and government as they were continually carry'd on from 1688 till 1697, Richard Kingston, 1698.

Tuesday, 16 October 2012

Thirty Years' War—Sir Thomas Tyldesley


The Dictionary of National Biography entry from 1899 for Sir Thomas Tyldesley 1612-1651 states, without giving a source, that he "adopted the military profession and served in the wars in Germany".

This is presumably a reference to the Thirty Years' War, fought in Europe from 1618–1648. The earliest known reference to the involvement of Sir Thomas is to be found in Memoires of the Lives, Actions, Sufferings and Deaths of those Noble, Reverend, and Excellent Personages [FN1], published in 1668:
Sir Thomas Tilfley, (b) a Brigadeer, Governour, I think, of Lichfield under King Charles I. 1645. and Major General of the Englifh, under King Charles II. 1651. by whom appointed to affift the Earl of Derby in raifing the Lancafhire and Chefhire Forces, he approved himfelf a faithful and an able man,. till he was flain at Wigan, Aug. 25.1651. with Sir F.Gamul [FN2], many years his fellow Souldier, and now his fellow Sufferer; men of good hands and hearts, of exact lives as well as great parts, each way proportionable; in nothing redundant or defective, abhorring as they called them, ill-favoured and unclean fins. The Grave hath every where a good ftornach; but where thefe were buried a Boulimia, or greedy worm, devouring their Honourable bodies, as Aceldama did tread Corpfes in 48 hours: their bodies being taken away as greedily as the Treafure in Jofephus was out of Davids Grave, though by the way, it was ftrange there fhould be treafure in Davids Tomb, who faid, Pf. 49.17. Man fhall carry nothing away with him.
(b) Bred in the German Wars.

1. Memoires of the Lives, Actions, Sufferings and Deaths of those Noble, Reverend, and Excellent Personages that Suffered by Death, Sequestration, Decimation, or Otherwise for the Protestant Religion and the great Principle thereof, Allegiance to their Soveraigne in our Late Intestine Wars, David Lloyd, 1668.
2. Sir Francis Gamul was named in early reports as one of those slain at the Battle of Wigan Lane in 1651—in fact, he survived until 1654.

Monday, 15 October 2012

The Tyldesley Monument—Wigan Lane


(click image for larger version)
Baines [FN1]:
Three years afterwards, when the hopes of the royalists were once more revived by the appearance of Charles II. in the field, despatches were sent by that prince to the earl of Derby, summoning him from the Isle of Man, to join the royal standard. Having landed at the mouth of the Wyre, in the Fylde, at the head of 300 troops, his lordship marched to Preston, whence he sent precepts, requiring the inhabitants of the county to join him at that place in arms. This call was but feebly obeyed ; and when his lordship marched from Preston to the south, the number of his troops did not exceed 600 [1]. Manchester was at that time occupied by the Cheshire and Lancashire militia, and Colonel Lilburne, who had arrived from York with ten troops of dragoons, to join the army of Cromwell, which was daily expected from Scotland, advanced at the head of his forces to Wigan, for the purpose of intercepting the march of the earl of Derby. Having posted his horse in Wigan Lane, and lined the hedges with his infantry, the earl of Derby on his approach (August 25, 1651) was saluted with a galling fire of musketry. Astonished but not dismayed by this reception, the earl halted, and dividing his small force into two bodies of 300 each, he took upon himself the command of the van, giving the rear to Sir Thomas Tyldesley. A charge was then sounded, and this gallant little band twice cut their way through the main body of the enemy, but, attempting it a third time, and being environed and oppressed by unequal numbers, the Lord Wicldrington, Sir Thomas Tyldesley, and many other brave and worthy men, were slain. Sir Robert Throgmorton, knight marshal, was left also for dead upon the field, but, being taken up by a poor woman, and consigned to the care of Sir Roger Bradshaigh, he recovered [2]. After displaying prodigies of valour, the earl of Derby, who was wounded, and had had two horses shot under him, took refuge in a house in the market-place at Wigan, from whence he escaped the same night, and pursued his route towards Worcester, attended by three faithful followers. His lordship, on his departure, left behind him a brass plate with the arms of Man, encircled by the garter, and this plate remained in the same house (the Dog Inn) till the year 1824, when it was sold to the earl of Derby by a descendant of the family that afforded refuge to his noble ancestor. A monumental pillar in Wigan Lane marks the spot upon which the gallant Sir Thomas Tyldesley fell, and records his military achievements in these appropriate terms :— 
An high Act of Gratitude, which conveys the Memory of
SIR THOMAS TYLDESLEY
To posterity,
Who served King Charles the First as Lieutenant-Colonel at Edge-Hill Battle,
After raising Regiments of Horse, Foot, and Dragoons,
And for
The desperate storming of Burton-upon-Trent, over a bridge of 36 arches,
RECEIVED THE HONOUR OF KNIGHTHOOD
He afterwards served in all the wars in great command,
Was Governor of Lichfield,
And followed the fortune of the Crown through the Three Kingdoms,
And never compounded with the Rebels, though strongly invested ;
And on the 25th August, A.D. 1651, was here slain,
Commanding as Major-General under the EARL OF DERBY,
To whom the grateful Erector, ALEXANDER RIGBY, Esq. was Cornet;
And when he was High Sheriff of this County (A.D. 1679)
Placed this high obligation on the whole Family of the Tyldesleys,
To follow the noble example of their Loyal Ancestor. 
1. In Whitelocke's Memorial, p. 504, it is said that the earl of Derby had got together 1500 men; Secombe, in his History of the House of Stanley, says "about 600."
2. According to Whitelocke, p. 505, the earl of Derby lost on this occasion in prisoners, five colonels, the adjutant-general, four lieutenant-colonels, one major, four captains, two lieutenants, and 400 men; and had slain Lord Widdrington, Major-General Sir Thomas Tyldesley, one colonel, two majors, and divers others of quality. So highly did the Parliament estimate the " victory of Wigan Lane," that they voted to Colonel Lilburne £500, and £200 per annum as a mark of honour for his services, with £100 to the lieutenant who conveyed the despatches; and public thanksgivings were ordered to be offered up in the churches of London and Westminster for this victory.

1. The History of the County Palatine and Duch of Lancaster, Edward Baines, John Harland, Brooke Herford, 1870 (Vol II p179)